AGGRESSION REPLACEMENT TRAINING® (ART®)
Aggression is a learned behavior. It is immediately, effectively, richly and efficiently
reinforced. If I am bigger than you are, and I want something of yours I can just take it. There, I have it, you don't. I
get what I want, and my aggression has paid off.
Aggression is a complex, not complicated behavior. Since it is learned,
and learned at a very early age, learned in our communities, schools, churches, and homes, we needed to develop an intervention
that would get young people to unlearn what had been successfully reinforced and substitute something more beneficial.
Arnold P. Goldstein and Dr. Barry Glick posited that if aggression was a complex learned behavior, it needed to be countered
from a number of fronts. First, most juvenile offenders lack the basic social skills to use in angry producing situations.
As you probably know from other sources, these juvenile offenders never learned basic skills in the first instance. As such,
ART® has as its behavioral component Structured Learning Training (SLT). Even if young people know what to do in an angry
producing situation, their emotions often get in the way. As such, we included a second component in ART®, that of Anger Control
Training. ACT is the affective component. Finally, juvenile offenders may know what skill to use, and even control their anger
enough to use the pro-social skill, yet choose not to use the skill. To mitigate against this dynamic in what we thought to
be the root inhibitors to mitigate against aggression, we included Moral Reasoning, the cognitive component, in order to train
young people a process of how to view their world in a more fair, equitable, and just manner.
What is ART®? Well first
let us tell you what ART® is NOT. ART® is not:
** traditional psychotherapy, whether it be psychoanalysis, client centered,
** group guidance or advice giving
** values training or clarification
** content specific
ART® is an action oriented, multimodal intervention that uses specific strategies to address those contributors that cause
aggressive and violent behaviors in juvenile offenders.
STRUCTURED LEARNING TRAINING (SLT)
The objective of SLT is to provide young people
the skills to use in angry producing situations. These skills may be used with peers, authority figures such as parents, teachers,
significant others, and even police. The techniques used to teach social skills is similar to any other learning situation.
If you wanted to teach someone, say how to drive, what do you do? That is right, we would show them. After I showed them the
perfect way to do the task, then what do I do? That is correct, I encourage them to try it. Here, Joe, it is your turn, you
drive. After Joe tries the task, I give him feedback. We discuss what he had done, and how well he did. Then I assign him
homework to practice. Teaching skills is as simple as that.
For ART®, we chose ten skills (from the original 50 skill
curriculum we originally developed) to train adolescents. Why, because we believed these were most useful in mitigating against
aggression and violent behaviors.
ANGER CONTROL TRAINING (ACT)
Anger Control Training (ACT) is the second component of ART® and was first
developed by Eva Feindler at Adelphi University for pre-school children who were emotionally disturbed and aggressive. Goldstein
and I adapted this intervention, modifying it for adolescents, especially those who were incarcerated and prone to aggression
ACT is based upon the A - B - C model of Aggression. A stands for antecedents; B stands for Behavior;
and C stands for Consequences. The ACT module trains young people in concepts and techniques based upon each of these three
Let's take a look at the angry behavior cycle and chain more closely.
What is a trigger? Like a
trigger of a gun, that which set the gun off, triggers set individuals off. There are two types of triggers, internal and
external. External triggers are the conditions that make you angry. For example, if I am driving down the road, and I see
in my rear view mirror a car that is being driven erratically, weaving in and out of lanes, cutting people off, I become concerned.
Right by the exit that I am getting off, that same car cuts in front of me and speeds down the ramp. That is the eternal trigger.
Depending what I say to myself, the internal trigger, depends on how angry I become. If I say to myself that the guy is crazy,
selfish, and almost caused me to run off the road, how angry am I? If, however, I say to myself, that guy is crazy, maybe
he is drunk or high on something, and he could hurt himself or someone else, I may be still angry, but am I as angry as in
the first instance? And if I see a blue hospital sign at the exit, and I say to myself that the guy must have an emergency
and needs to get to the hospital quickly, well, maybe I am not angry at all.
Cues are physical signs that let you
know you are getting angry. What are your physical signs. What happens to your body, what do you notice when you are angry?
Reminders are phrases or statements that get us to stop and try to control our reactions. Some key phrases young offenders
respond to include: Chill or chill out: Cool Down; You don't have to loose your cool; Don't let him (her) (it) get the best
We then teach a series of anger reducers. These are techniques that actually help reduce aggressive reactions
based upon some intervening behavior. Meichenbaum and Novaco have both done extensive work in this area. The three techniques
we teach in ART® are: Pleasant Imagery, Deep Breathing, and Counting Backwards.
Self Evaluation is a technique we
teach the juvenile offender to use after the incident and anger control skills have been used. How did they do? Did they control
their anger? Did they limit their aggressive behaviors?
Thinking ahead is another way of controlling one's behavior
and is introduced next. We train young people to look at short and long range consequences, as well as if, then scenarios.
third component of ART®, Moral Reasoning, is aimed at dealing with choosing to use pro-social skills over aggressive and violent
behavior. This is the cognitive component of the program and integrates cognitive restructuring principles into ART®. MR is
based upon Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in which individual increase their view of their world, as they
develop to more fair, equitable, and just perspectives.
A moral dilemma is presented to a group of no more than 12 group
members who are asked to give their opinion about the situation. Kohlberg posits that those at lower stages of moral
development will increase in their development by debating the situation with those who are at higher stages of moral development.
Group Facilitators foster discussions among group members so that they are able to take different perspectives other
than their own on presents problem situations. While it is not necessary to reach group consensus or discuss
every question of each problem situation, the process of sharing one's viewpoint and learning to take perspectives of others
enhances moral development and an more fair and equitable view of the world.
· Multi-modal intervention
· Ten week Program
· Three sessions per week, one in each of the components
· Well researched for program effectiveness
for A Change (T4C)
Thinking for a Change (T4C) is a multi-modal cognitive behavioral interventions
that combines the techniques and principles from Cognitive Self Change, Skills Training, and Problem Solving. National Certification
for trained Group Facilitators is available through the Center for Credentialing and education.
The Thinking for a Change curriculum uses as its
core, a problem solving component, embellished by both Cognitive Restructuring and Cognitive Social Skills interventions.
While each of the concepts are presented systemically, the participant quickly learns and appreciates that Cognitive Restructuring
does require some Cognitive Skills methods, as does Cognitive Skills require an objective, systematic approach to identify
thinking, beliefs, attitudes, and values. The Cognitive Restructuring concepts are introduced and emphasized during the initial
eleven lessons of the program, interspersed with targeted critical social skills that support the cognitive restructuring
process. This is followed by the problem solving techniques (lessons 16-21), again supported by appropriate social skills
to embellish that concept. Simultaneously, the problem solving portions of the curriculum relies upon the restructuring concepts
and techniques already introduced to the participants, thereby integrating all three approaches. By the time participants
reach the twelfth lesson of the program, the Cognitive Restructuring techniques are so ingrained in their repertoire of competencies,
that it is no longer required to be emphasized as a separate entity, becoming second nature to the offender participant. By
the 22nd lesson, participants are ready to evaluate themselves using a skills checklist, in order to develop their own cognitive
skills (advanced) curriculum.
The Thinking for a Change Curriculum is comprised of 22 lessons with a capacity to extend
the program indefinitely, depending upon how many cognitive social skills are taught. It is recommended that the group meet
for an additional ten sessions which is based upon the self-evaluations each participant completes in the 22nd lesson. These
additional skills are the result of further assessment of the skill deficits for each participant, and then aggregated across
the entire group. In this way, each group member is invested and empowered to participate in their own learning and self development,
providing a forum for continued skill and cognitive development.
Each lesson is formatted similarly. It begins with a
summary and rationale section in which the scope, breadth, and reason for teaching the lesson is provided. This is followed
by concepts and definitions, which outline the key points for the lesson and any definitions necessary for the trainer to
facilitate the lesson. The lesson objectives are then outlined, followed by major activities in the lesson. Any supplemental
material, equipment and supplies are listed. The content of the lesson is then detailed. Within each lesson, there are both
suggested trainer scripts in which at least the fundamental and required information is provided. There are also specific
trainer notes given in parallel columns which further embellish the training script.
Participants should be pre-screened
after a brief individual interview. Such a meeting which need take no more than fifteen minutes, should set the tone of the
learning sessions, direct and focus the participant to their need for the program, and an expectation that positive participation
would greatly enhance their options.
- Three interdependent cognitive approaches
- Based upon Cognitive Restructuring, Cognitive Skills
and Problem Solving strategies
- 25 Lessons well formatted and easy to follow
- Participants attend at least two sessions per week
Youth Development System(YDS)
The Youth Development System (YDS) is based
upon adolescent theory, and leadership principles noted by Hersey and Blanchard. The YDS is designed to provide juvenile offenders
opportunities to learn, grow, and experience progress in their daily living activities, even if some of their behaviors are
negative or inappropriate.
The Youth Development System (YDS)
is based upon adolescent theory, and leadership principles noted by Hersey and Blanchard. The YDS is neither a level system
nor a token economy system, both of which are based upon principles of Behavior Modification. Instead the YDS is designed
to provide juvenile offenders opportunities to learn, grow, and experience progress in their daily living activities, even
if some of their behaviors are negative or inappropriate. Since the YDS is firmly rooted in adolescent development, it relies
on those developmental tasks that juvenile offenders must acquire in four key areas of adolescence: the Physical, Cognitive,
Emotional, and Social. The YDS requires that juvenile offenders, by acquiring pro-social skills and appropriate problem solving
techniques, will develop responsible behavior based upon positive thoughts, feelings, beliefs and attitudes. It is this cognitive
restructuring combined with skill development that produces responsible behavior and in turn warrants privileges. As juvenile
offenders advance their stages of development by demonstrating increased levels of responsible behavior, they are given more
opportunities to exercise their own control in behavior and decision making.
Staff is critical
to the successful implementation of the Youth Development System. Staff differentiates their actions and behavior with youth
based upon the youth’s stage of development. As such, staff learns to assess the situation in which the youth behaves,
accounts for the youth’s developmental stage as defined by the YDS, and interacts accordingly. While staff techniques
are standardized and dictated by the YDS and Situational Leadership Theory, staff uses their own style and preference to accomplish
the appropriate behavior outcome for each youthful offender. As a result of learning and understanding Adolescent Development,
Situational Leadership, and the concepts of the YDS, staff will expand their own tools and methods, which they will be able
to transport with them, no matter where they work.
Situational Leadership–An Overview
Situational Leadership is an approach developed by Hersey and Blanchard (1981, 1985), to help manage individuals. It originally
was developed for supervisors in a work situation, and later applied to a variety of human services settings including corrections.
Situational Leadership combines the amount of direction and control (Directive Behavior) a leader gives to a subordinate;
the amount of support and encouragement (Supportive Behavior) a leader provides; and the competence and commitment (developmental
Level) that a follower exhibits in performing a specific task in any given situation.
1. Directive Behavior is the
extent to which the leader engages in one-way communication; spells out the subordinates role and specifically tells the followers
what to do, where to do it, how to do it, when to do it, and closely monitors and supervises the subordinate’s performance.
Supportive Behavior is the extent to which a leader engages in two-way communication, listens, provides support and encouragement,
facilitates interaction, and involves the subordinate in decision making.
3. Developmental Level is comprised of competence
(the follower’s job knowledge and skills) and commitment (the follower’s motivation and/or confidence). The more
competent and committed, the more responsibility the subordinate will take to direct his or her own behavior.
how to combine the two types of behaviors to interact with juvenile offenders. The combination and balance between Directive
and Supportive behavior is directly related to the stage at which the youth perform. By combining these two types of behaviors,
four leadership styles are available for staff to use. Once staff masters the four different leadership styles, they are in
a capable position to manage youth behavior and direct their growth.
1. Directing: High directive/low supportive behavior. Staff using this leadership style provides specific instructions
for youth and closely supervises task completion.
2. Coaching High directive/high supportive behavior. Staff explains the
decisions they make and solicits suggestions from juvenile offenders, but continues to direct task achievement.
High supportive/low directive behavior. Staff makes decisions together with the youthful offender and supports efforts toward
their task accomplishment.
4. Delegating Low supportive/low directive behavior. Staff allows the youthful offender to implement
and achieve the assigned task independently, exercising responsibility and decision making as appropriate.
Thus, the YDS
provides guidance to staff as to how they should approach juvenile offenders in any given situation. Based upon the youth’s
developmental stage as defined by the YDS, staff choose the appropriate leadership style in order to best manage the youth’s
behavior in any given situation. Staff are always the final authority and in control of any situation, but exercise great
latitude as they interact with the youth they manage. The YDS creates a learning environment in which juvenile offenders are
provided opportunities to grow and develop by exploring their thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and attitudes. Using developmental
tasks they have already acquired and learning new ones, juvenile offenders are constantly challenged to increase responsible
behavior and advance their developmental stages through a variety of experiences and learning aids.
The Youth Development System
Youth are assessed through Interdisciplinary Team Reviews and placed in one of four Stages. Stages are determined by the youth’s
developmental level as defined by Situational Leadership Theory (i.e.: competence and commitment). The following chart identifies
a youthful offender’s Developmental Stage (in general terms), given any specific situation. The Developmental Stages
ranges from low to high, identifying juvenile offenders from “in the process of developing to having fully developed”.
Low Competence Low Commitment
Some Competence Low Commitment
High Competence Variable Commitment
High Competence High Commitment
developmental stage has its own set of responsibilities that the youthful offender must acquire in order to move onto higher
stages. Once acquired, a stage may not be taken away, and so it is incumbent upon staff to insure that when a youth is certified
as reaching a certain stage of development, that the youth has indeed demonstrated the responsibilities required of that stage.
Each stage of the YDS has a set of responsibilities that a youth must demonstrate competency and in turn a set of developmental
tasks in which the youth must be proficient. Because the YDS is based upon adolescent development principles, youth need not
complete all stages of the YDS in order to be released from program or be successful in their habilitation. Rather, staff
must be able to accurately assess their developmental stage and insure that those significant others understand the competencies
and commitment the youthful offender has, given situations they encounter.
Documenting progress is reported during regular
case conferences and youth records, as any staff log or note would be recorded. The YDS also has certain tools to aid staff
as they interact with youth at various stages. These include:
• Youthful Offender Progress Reports
Youthful Offender Evaluation Forms
• Criteria for Stage Advancement
• Stage Review Process
Offender Behavior Improvement Plans
• Mentor Weekly Progress Report
At each Stage, youth are provided with a color coded identifier (e.g.: tee-shirt; wristband; id-card) to signify the Stage
they have achieved. Staff are able to better identify YDS stages of youth, group youth accordingly and manage behavior, both
individual and group. Specifics of the YDS may be found in the YDS Rule Book for Juvenile offenders, The Youth YDS Handbook,
and The YDS Staff Manual.
· A System to manage behavior
of anti-social, criminal, aggressive youth
· Based upon adolescent development
theory, and situational leadership
· Matches staff interventions
with youth according to youth maturational developmental tasks
· Curtails system manipulation
by youth and staff
Aggression Replacement Training® Centers (PART®TC)
Standards and Practices
for accredited Professional Aggression Replacement
Training® Training Centers (PART®TC)
is well established (Andrews, 1990, 1994; Gendreau, 1981, 1994) that programs and services are most effective and efficient
when they are delivered with integrity. It is critically important that programs and services, especially those
based in cognitive behavioral approaches such as Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®), are implemented as they were originally designed
and developed. The purpose of this document is to clearly identify those standards and practices that are necessary
to properly deliver the Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) intervention, with maximum
integrity in its original design and implementation. Accredited Professional ART® Training Centers (PART®TC) subscribe to and follow the standards and practices as stated herein; and retain such accreditation
as long as they adhere to these guidelines.
1. Accredited Professional ART® Training Center (PART®TC) A group of individuals who have been trained to train others to deliver Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®), at
least one of whom is certified as a Master Trainer, having attained that level of competency and skill and certified
2. Standards and Practices A set of criteria and procedures used to deliver
the Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) interventions with integrity and according to established routines as first developed by
Ph.D., NCC, ACS.
3. Program Integrity - the therapeutic integrity of the program
or the need for effective programs to be delivered as planned and designed. Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®)
programs that are delivered with integrity are implemented by trained personnel according to the process and procedures first
designed and developed by Barry Glick,
Ph.D., NCC, ACS.
4. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Group Trainer (Facilitator)
An individual who has attended and completed an Aggression Replacement Training®
training seminar, which is typically 36 hours in duration, and has obtained a certificate to deliver the Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) program.
5. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Trainer of Group Trainers (Facilitators)
An individual who has obtained a certificate for Aggression Replacement Training®
Group Trainers (Facilitators) and has met the requirement for Aggression Replacement
Training® (ART®) Trainer
of Group Trainers (Facilitators).
6. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Master Trainer An individual who has met the requirements for Master Trainer and
has received a certificate from Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS, indicating such.
7. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Products and Materials Merchandise
such as goods and supplies that aid in the delivery of Aggression Replacement Training®
(ART®), the training for individuals, or the accreditation
8. Accreditation Process A series of activities that must be mastered and
completed before an individual is designated to deliver and/or train AGGRESSION Replacement
Training® (ART®); or an
organization completes in order to be accredited as a PART®TC.
Training and Skill Development
There are three levels of training that leads to
designation of individual Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) skill acquisition and competency. These include:
1. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Group Trainers (Facilitators) Training
is a five-day 36-40 hour seminar in which participants are provided didactic and interactive experiences in each of the three
components of Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®).
The seminar has specific goals and behavioral objectives for participant training and competency development. As a result
of the successful completion of this training seminar, participants will: a) understand that Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®) is a cognitive behavior, multi-modal curriculum; b) understand the theoretical
base of each of the three components; c) prepare, practice, and deliver a lesson within each of the components to a group
of their peer participants; d) understand the process by which SLT and ACT is taught and practice each of the steps of the
process; d) learn about Kohlbergs Moral Development and its application to ART®. Agendas, participant manuals and training designs are available through Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS.
2. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Trainer of Group Trainers (Facilitators) Training
is a minimum four or five day 32-40 hour seminar (that may include up to 280 hours of additional study depending on
participant qualifications), in which participants are provided specific information about adult learners and what trainers
must do to train others in Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®).
The seminar has specific goals and behavioral objectives for individuals to accomplish before they are designated as Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Trainers of Group Trainers
(Facilitators). Individuals must first successfully have completed the Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®) Group Trainers (Facilitators) Training and have delivered the Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) program at least three
times to clients with documented supervision of their experiences. Once accepted into this seminar, participants
will fully know the contents and skills of each of the Aggression Replacement Training®
lessons that are delivered to clients. The participants must also prepare to teach the Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Group Trainers (Facilitators) Training seminar to a group of their peers under the supervision
of a Master Trainer, who is the lead trainer for this seminar.
3. Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Master Trainer
Trainers are individuals who have at least five years of experience delivering Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®) to clients and at least three years experience as an Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Trainer of Group Trainers (Facilitators).
(One of these years may be concurrent with the five years experience delivering Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®). The Master Training is an individualized training program developed
by the Master Trainer Candidate with the guidance and direction of a Master Trainer. The individualized program
must be reviewed and approved by Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS and the Master Trainer
credential must be signed (or co-signed) by Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS.
A Master Trainer: a) may work independently, providing consultation to agencies and systems in the area of Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®); b) may design variations of the ART® program to meet particular client needs; c) may initiate and/or operate
a PART®TC; and d) offer credentials to individuals for both the Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Group Trainers (Facilitators) Training
and the Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) Trainer of Group Trainers (Facilitators) Trainer Training.
Basic Materials and Product Development
· Aggression Replacement Training® (Third Edition--Revised
and Expanded); Glick, B and Gibbs,
J. 2011. Research Press: Champaign, IL
· Aggression Replacement Training®: A Comprehensive
Intervention for Aggressive Youth;
Goldstein, AP and Glick, B. 1987. Research Press: Champaign, IL
· Other paraphernalia such as Coffee/Tea Mugs, Calendars, Pens/Pencils, Office Supplies (such
as mouse pads, key chains, rulers to name but a few), or other materials to further market or aid in training, as reviewed
and authorized by Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS.
for Accreditation of PART®TC
1. PART®TC are comprised of at least
two individuals, one of whom must be a credentialed Master Trainer.
2. PART®TC must be approved, accredited
and enter into a formal agreement with Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS of G &
G Consultants, LLC.
3. PART®TC must follow all the standards
and practices as stated herein and submit an annual report to Barry Glick, Ph.D.,
NCC, ACS of G & G Consultants, LLC stating the training activities, seminars conducted and location, materials developed
(with copies of each) and the names, addresses and current email addresses of each individual the PART®TC credentialed.
4. PART®TC must keep current records
of all seminars they provide, a current list of all individuals they have trained, and insure that Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®) Trainers of Group Trainers (Facilitators) and any Master Trainers maintain
their competency and adhere to Aggression Replacement Training®
(ART®) guidelines and practices.
5. PART®TC must inform Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS of G & G Consultants, LLC of any changes to their formal agreement
within 15 days of any proposed or actual change; and must insure that all ethical and legal practices are maintained and implemented.
and Privileges of PART®TC
may at their discretion:
1. Plan and conduct Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) training seminars for group Trainers (Facilitators) and trainers
who wish to train group Trainers (Facilitators).
2. Set and charge fees for their services.
3. Consult to agencies and systems within their approved geographical area.
4. Issue competency credentials to Aggression Replacement Training®
Group Trainers (Facilitators) and/or Aggression Replacement Training®
(ART®) Trainers of Group Trainers (Facilitators)
who have met the requirements of each.
5. Sub contract with other agencies/systems
in their geographical area as PART®TC after advice and consultation with Barry
Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS.
6. Develop materials and training aids, tools, and other paraphernalia to implement Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®) programs
and or training seminars.
7. Plan conferences and other professional opportunities as appropriate.
8. Establish networking opportunities such as data-link systems, listservs for the Internet,
advocacy groups as appropriate to advance the principles of Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®).
9. The PART®TC
will be listed with webpage links (if available) on the G & G Consultants, LLC Website
10. Technical Assistance will be provided (up to 20 hours per calendar year) by Barry
Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS as negotiated within an Accreditation Fees Agreement
11. ART agendas, manuals and training designs (developed by Barry Glick) may be used by the PART®TC as negotiated within an Accreditation Fees Agreement.
is responsible for the following that include but are not limited to:
1. Insuring that all individuals they train are competent and have demonstrated skills for the
level of credential offered in Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®).
2. Continuing Aggression Replacement Training® (ART®) with integrity and according to established practices and procedures.
3. Advancing the knowledge, understanding
and skill level of individuals who deliver cognitive behavior interventions, specifically Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®).
4. Develop public understanding and
community support as appropriate to advance the practice and implementation of Aggression
Replacement Training® (ART®).
5. Join established organizations that
will advance the practices and principles of Aggression Replacement Training®
6. Meet all professional and financial obligations as required by their local jurisdictions
and any agreements entered.
7. All Fees associated with Accreditation and the operations of these standards and practices
will be negotiated and agreed to in a separate Accreditation Fees Agreement between G & G Consultants, LLC and the accredited
It is agreed that the G & G Consultants, LLC
and Barry Glick, Ph.D., NCC, ACS are indemnified from any suits, obligations, damages,
claims, or demands arising out of or in connection with any training or activity offered as a result of this Accreditation
agreement by the Accredited Center.
· Provide services according to established standards and practices
· Independently represent the Aggression Replacement Training®
and ART® trademark, conducting business according to established practices and procedures
· Insure the advancement of Aggression Replacement Training®
with program efficacy and integrity
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